What you need to know about THE RESEARCH

Chronic diseases patients see the doctor and are hospitalized more often than other patients. And in most cases these patients have multiple doctors treating various different issues, as a direct result of this the patient’s care is fragmented with inefficient communication between providers. This is the case in part because of the structure of our healthcare delivery system as an acute care model, rather than a chronic care model. And as can be expected the lack of coordinated care can escalate overall costs and hospitalization rates.

Graphic courtesy of Power-Pak C.E.

Table 3. Positive Health Outcomes of Pharmacist Interventions: Evidence from Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses
Disease state/condition # patients (# studies)


Outcome/effect of pharmacist intervention
Diabetes 2,247 (16)35 Significantly reduced Hb A1c levels
Diabetes (10-City Challenge) 573 (1 multicenter)36 Influenza vaccination rate doubled; eye and foot examination rates increased
Diabetes (Asheville Project) 12 community pharmacies followed 5 years37 Significantly reduced mean Hb A1c; increased % of patients with optimal A1c; improved lipid levels; decreased costs of care; decreased sick days
Diabetes (poorly controlled) Retrospective review of 100 patient records11 Patients with pharmacist-directed MTM had higher rates of medication adherence and lower Hb A1C levels than the non-MTM group.
Hypertension 2,246 (13)38 Significantly reduced systolic BP
Hypertension, dyslipidemia 285 (Minnesota MTM Program)39 637 drug therapy problems resolved (in 285 patients); HEDIS measures improved for hypertension and cholesterol
Congestive heart failure 2060 (12)40 Reduced all-cause and heart-failure related hospitalizations
Patient safety 298 studies41 Significantly fewer adverse drug events; significantly improved adherence, patient knowledge, quality of life
Primary care clinics 38 studies (mostly cardiovascular and diabetes)42 Pharmacist interventions in primary care resulted in improvements in blood pressure, glycosylated hemoglobin, cholesterol, CVD risk factors
Hb A1c=hemoglobin A1c; BP=blood pressure; LDL=low-density lipoprotein

Table courtesy of Power-Pak C.E.

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